Bronchiectasis is a disease of the Airways, typically characterized by destruction and abnormally dilated Airways. While tuberculosis is the most common cause of this disease, any lung infection can potentially lead to bronchiectasis. Other causes such as foreign body impaction inside the lungs, and autoimmune causes could also lead to bronchiectasis.
Bronchiectasis in the lungs can lead to colonization of the diseased lung area with harmful bacteria, that can act as a source for recurrent infections. These patients usually have chronic copious productive cough and breathlessness. An HRCT Thorax usually confirms the diagnosis. Other investigations such as spirometry, 6-minute walk test, allergy skin testing, sputum culture and other blood tests will also be performed.
Treatment mainly involves bronchial hygiene therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation, inhalers, vaccination and a few oral medications.